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Last updated on 16 May 2022

Does the FDA accept CBD products? CBD products?

  • In December of 2018, The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (also called the Farm Bill) allowed the use of CBD from hemp so in the case of less than 0.3 percent THC content. (1)
  • In 2018, the 2018 Farm Bill came with a set of regulations regarding hemp cultivation and hemp-derived cannabinoids. The rules state that cannabinoids from hemp are permitted under certain conditions. (2)
  • Every state within the U.S. has its own policies on industrial hemp. Texas is one example. Texas permits the cultivation and growing of the plant , whereas Idaho is adamant that its cultivation is illegal. (3-4)
  • The FDA plans to provide more information on CBD usage and is contemplating regulating its CBD products that are similar to dietary supplements. (5)
  • Epidiolex is an CBD medication used to treat two forms of epilepsy that are rare was removed from the list of controlled substances by the DEA in April 2020. It was previously listed as an Schedule V drug under the CSA. (6)

What Does the Federal Law Say About CBD?

There are two varieties of Cannabis sativa plants which the federal government recognizes hemp and marijuana.

Marijuana is the most well-known of the two, and grows to have significant amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is the ingredient which gives cannabis its psychoactive effects. It also has cannabidiol (CBD) that is known for its healing properties, even at low levels. (7)

Hemp is, on contrary, has significant amounts of CBD and even traces of THC.

The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (Farm Bill) that was approved in December of 2018, allowed CBD extracted by hemp plant extracts legal as that it contained no more than 0.3 percent THC. (8)

But, CBD derived from the marijuana plant is not legal according to the Controlled Substances Act as it is classified as a Schedule I drug by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (9 ) This signifies that the DEA considers it to not have a medically accepted usage, but has a high likelihood of misuse.

The Farm Bill also came a set of rules for hemp cultivation. It stipulates that cannabinoids derived from hemp can only be used when it meets certain standards. (10 ) For example CBD-based products that have the THC amount that is approved however, hemp which was not cultivated by a licensed grower is not legally legal.

What Are the State Laws On CBD?

Although the federal government has approved CBD that is derived from the hemp plant, states are altering their laws, which aren’t always in line as federal laws.

For example, Texas has just recently permitted the cultivation and growing of industrial hemp, whereas Idaho is still adamant that its cultivation is illegal. (11-12)

Certain organizations have online databases that contain the most current state laws pertaining to CBD and hemp, which allows for quick access to hemp laws.

Evaluation and Rulemaking of Cannabidiol

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an announcement on March 5, 2020 regarding their progress in establishing an approach to regulation for CBD products.

They also provided an update on consumer concerns and the progress of their rulemaking process to Congress. One of the most exciting developments that was mentioned in the report is it was reported that FDA is currently looking at how to regulate these products, like dietary supplements. (13)

The FDA plans to make a number of steps to provide greater clarity to the market and also to ensure the safety of the general public.

One of their main objectives is to educate the public about the potential dangers associated with CBD usage. The FDA believes that there are some risks associated with making use of these products without the prescription. (14)

The administration also wants to answer questions about the possible benefits and safety of cannabidiol. They are calling on CBD industry players to supply them with high-quality information. The areas of their research are the effects of long-term usage, sedative effects, mechanisms of delivery, and the pharmacokinetics. (15)

In terms of enforcement policies regarding enforcement policy, the FDA believes a risk-based approach as the most feasible option going forward.

While the marketing of CBD products as supplements for dietary use isn’t permitted however, the FDA declares that they have the power to alter the rules at any time.

Another issue that the FDA addressed was CBD vape products, in which the FDA states the significant chance of toxic issues that may arise from the use of these products. The FDA also stressed that CBD for vaping is not used as a medicine without obtaining FDA approval.

The report doesn’t offer many modifications regarding policy updates because it is focused upon the efforts that they are making in drafting CBD regulations. However, the FDA seems to be listening to the demands of the public, who have repeatedly urged the FDA to allow legalization of the CBD market even more.

Are There Any FDA Approved CBD Products?

In the year 2018, in 2018, the FDA authorized the usage of Epidiolex which is a medication that contains CBD for treating two epilepsy disorders that are rare: Dravet syndrome (D.S.) and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). (16 ) It is available as a liquid that can be taken orally and is approved to be used by patients who are who are two years old or over.

Based on clinical research, Epidiolex is capable of decreasing the frequency of seizures among people who use this drug. (17)

A study conducted in 2015 on over 80 LGS patients showed a decrease in seizures after they were treated with regular doses of Epidiolex over a period of 12 weeks. While most had adverse reactions such as nausea, diarrhea, as well as fever, this study suggests the effectiveness of the drug and its long-term safety health profile. (18)

A follow-up study conducted in 2017 was conducted with 61 patients using the same method, approach and time frame to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of CBD for those who suffer from D.S. The patients all saw a significant decrease in the frequency of seizures and also the average time of a seizures. (19)

While scientists don’t yet have a complete understanding of the effectiveness of this medication, the results they have observed so far have prompted the utilization of CBD to treat epilepsy.


Epidiolex Descheduled by DEA

GW Pharmaceuticals, a biopharmaceutical company that promotes the use of cannabinoid and cannabinoid use, announced in a press announcement the 6th of April, 2020, that Epidiolex is not covered by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The change is effective as soon as that the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has informed them of the change. (20)

After its approval for Epidiolex in the year 2018, it was initially designated an CSA Schedule V drug the CSA until the announcement from the DEA that effectively removes the classification.

This also implies the abolition of certain regulations that had restricted the usage for Epidiolex previously. G.W. Pharmaceuticals is currently making this change effective at the state level , and through its Epidiolex network.

Once the process is completed, prescriptions for the drug, like other medicines that are not controlled, will last for a year, and are transferable effortlessly between pharmacies.

The de-scheduling of Epidiolex by the DEA also permits doctors to prescribe this medication without the usual requirements of state prescribed drug plans.

How CBD Can Appease the FDA

In the past year in the year 2000, the FDA issued warning letters to a number of CBD producers who made unsubstantiated claims about the benefits of CBD for health. (21 ) This kind of practice is the type of practice that the FDA is still concerned about and plans to pursue small-scale businesses who continue to engage in this type of practice.

Beware of the fury from the FDA is essential for CBD businesses if they want to keep their business going. Here are some things sellers should take into consideration when selling CBD-based products.

  • Any kind of claim is not allowed in testimonials and reviews of products.
  • Incorporating a hashtag claim (#paintreatment or #anxiety, #CBDheals) could increase the chance of a business being cautioned by the FDA since hashtags are viewed to be claims made by the FDA.
  • Don’t like or make comments on posts on social media that contain claims, particularly since participating in these posts can prove the claims of other users.
  • The FDA also examines the most popular video channels such as YouTube to determine if there are claims of CBD. CBD claims.
  • The use of a “Made in the USA” label could lead to legal proceedings since this label is only appropriate in cases where the majority of the components are made in the U.S., including the packaging and the carrier oil used.
  • The agency is of the opinion that infographics are assertions.

The Federal government has been working the CBD rules (22 ), choosing CBD-based products that have the least risk of legal liability isn’t easy. Experts advise carefully reviewing the manufacturer’s websites and labels prior to purchasing.

Here are the specifics to be looking for:

  • Certificate of Analysis – Also known as a COA document, it reveals the results of lab tests conducted by independent laboratories that analyzes specifics such as the presence of contaminants and the power. Make sure you have the COA batch number is the same as that on the packaging or label.
  • The origin of hemp – Make sure to verify that the product is made from hemp that is produced within the United States. Hemp is grown outside of the United States and is subject to the international regulations for production.
  • Testing methods – Verify that the laboratory that is performing the tests within the COA is in compliance with those “ISO 17025” standards. The testing methods have to be verified through either American Herbal Pharmacopoeia, the U.S. Pharmacopeia, or the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
  • Potency Potency The COA should also include the quantity in CBD and THC substances should be noted both in dosage and as a the total.

Beware of buying products whose manufacturer isn’t able to provide the information needed or isn’t willing to disclose it. There are a lot of CBD products that are not correctly labeled and may contain more THC than the amount stated. (23)

Difference Between Isolate and Full-Spectrum CBD Oil

The two main kinds that are available in CBD hemp extracts offered by sellers are the crystal isolate, commonly referred to as “CBD isolate,” and the full spectrum CBD. Both can provide potential beneficial effects for health.

With all the misinformation out there and misinformation, it is essential to make sure buyers know the difference between these two prior to making an investment.


What is a CBD Isolate?

An CBD isolate is made of agricultural hemp , and is typically extracted using the CO2 extraction process that is supercritical. They are pure cannabidiol and are not contaminated by the other substances that are found in cannabis plants.

When purchasing an CBD isolate, a important aspect to take into consideration is the transparency of the brand. Check for an Certificate of Analysis before purchase because this will help you identify the quality and effectiveness of the product.


Advantages of CBD Isolate

  • CBD isolate is a versatile product since it is typically purchased in a stand-alone product for consumers and can be found as a powdered product. This formula makes the isolate easily ingested by mixing it with water, add to homemade food items, or take directly.
  • The buyers know exactly what they’re buying by purchasing CBD isolate since the product is only made up of CBD and absolutely nothing other than CBD. CBD isolats are easy and simple for consumers to get the amount they require.
  • CBD isolates don’t contain THC This makes them particularly suitable for those who are extremely sensitive to the chemical compound.


What is Full-Spectrum CBD?

Full-spectrum CBD, on other hand, is an item that contains a wide variety of cannabinoids like CBD CBG, THC, Terpenes, and other compounds found in hemp. The extraction of this kind of CBD is done by a variety of methods, including the use of supercritical CO2, ethanol and other oils like hemp oil.

In general, CBD oil that is described as full-spectrum has an cannabinoid profile that is very similar to hemp.


Advantages of Full-Spectrum CBD

  • The entourage effect occurs when all the components that make up the full spectrum of CBD oil combine to offer users a variety of health benefits.
  • Full-spectrum CBD products contain terpenes that can give an appealing aroma and taste for the item. CBD is considered to be full-spectrum, usually have the earthy and delicious flavors of hemp plants that are naturally grown.
  • In comparison with CBD isomers, CBD items that are regarded as full spectrum are generally believed to offer greater health benefits because of the mix of chemicals in these products.


Full-Spectrum CBD or CBD Isolate?

The choice between a full-spectrum CBD oil or an isolate is based on the requirements of the individual. Full-spectrum CBD oil can offer greater potential benefits for the public health, whereas others might prefer the exact dosage and flexibility only available in isolates.

People who want to stay clear of THC content, but want to reap the benefits of hemp can search for CBD with broad spectrum. The product contains all the ingredients (fatty acids, terpenes, and cannabinoids) similar to a full-spectrum CBD product, but without the THC.

It is crucial for individuals to consult their doctor to determine if CBD is appropriate for them. This will help them better understand the issues they may be experiencing and aiding in selecting the best CBD product to meet their requirements.

Being aware of the possibility to utilize CBD without worrying regarding health, users can determine which one is the most effective. Try both CBD isolates and full spectrum products to determine the difference.

CBD and the Endocannabinoid System

Through years of study and research researchers have learned a lot regarding marijuana’s effects, including a number of important discoveries. They have not only identified the active component in cannabis and discovered the effects about a component of the body known as the endocannabinoid systems (ECS).

The ECS is a distinct communication system that connects both the body and brain, and influences many vital functions, including the way a person moves, reacts and experiences. Human bodies produce natural chemical known as “cannabinoids,” which interact with the ECS to regulate vital functions.

Researchers also discovered that the system also responds to cannabinoids that come from outside sources, particularly the phytocannabinoid called CBD. (24 ) A study from 2010 explored the possibility of altering the ECS by introducing cannabinoids from outside. (25)

Utilizing CBD for instance conditions such as these could be treated:

  • Anxiety
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Diabetes
  • Heart Disease
  • Nausea
  • Schizophrenia
  • Psoriasis
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

CBD and the Cannabinoid Receptors in the Body

Researchers are in agreement on two kinds of receptors for cannabinoid in the human body, referred to by the names of CB1 as well as CB2. While their names sound like they are the same, they function differently in the human body.


Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1)

CB1 receptor was first discovered in 1990. CB1 receptor first identified in the year 1990. It is located in the brain as well as in the central nervous system (CNS) and gonads, connective tissues, intestines and various glands. The activation of this receptor may aid in reducing depression (26) and decreasing blood pressure (27) and enhancing myelin production (28).


Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 (CB2)

However, CB2 receptors on the other hand, CB2 receptors were first discovered in 1993 and can be found predominantly in the tonsils, lymphoid cells, thymus and spleen.

The changes that take place in the functioning that occur in the function CB2 receptor are associated with nearly every human illness that is related to digestive, cardiovascular, psychosis, autoimmune, or neurodegenerative. The receptor also plays an impact on the function of liver and kidneys as well as the condition of the skin and bone, as well as cancer. (29)

Can CBD help with addiction?

CBD-based products can assist addicts recover due to their capacity to connect with the endocannabinoid system. Consuming CBD could provide an additional boost of cannabinoids which could aid this system in doing better at controlling the bodily functions.

As of the date of writing, research has shown that CBD appears to be effective in helping people overcome addiction to drugs. (30)


CBD for Cocaine Addiction

Cocaine is an extremely addicting drug that affects it’s “reward” center (pleasure center) in the human brain.

The study focused with rats that were exposed to cocaine when they received daily doses of CBD for a period of seven days. It was discovered that CBD decreased the desire for drugs in the rodents, both in stress and with signals.

The study also showed that CBD decreased their impulsiveness as well as anxiety, two signs of withdrawal from addiction. (31)


CBD for Nicotine Addiction

A group of smokers who tried CBD inhalers to reduce their craving for nicotine. A different group received inhalers along with placebo. The study found that the people who used CBD inhalers had fewer cigarettes than the other group. (32)

Another study was conducted with participants who were asked to not smoke the night prior to. They received an oral dosage of 800 mg CBD, or placebo on the next day, and presented with images of smoking cigarettes and smoking cigarettes.

While CBD did not affect their cravings, CBD didn’t affect the cravings of smokers, the research revealed that it decreased the pleasure they experienced when they were presented with nicotine-related stimulation and signals. The results suggest that there may be possible applications for CBD in reducing nicotine cravings triggered by cues. (33)


CBD for Opioid Addiction

The treatment of extreme discomfort in the body usually involves prescribing opioids to manage this issue. But, the body may become dependent on opioids for relief, which makes it difficult for some people to quit the use of opioids.

The more longer the duration of use of opioids the greater a person’s tolerance increases. This can lead to greater or higher doses in order to get similar effects as the substance.

CBD binds to the 5-HT1A receptors in the brain. These are the receptors that are involved in the creation of serotonin. This reduces the “reward” response of a person, and in doing so, may reduce the dependence of opioids in the end. (34)

Research has also shown that CBD may reduce certain types of behaviors that are associated with drug use (35 ) for those who are who are addicted to heroin, while decreasing their desire for the substance. (36)

A lot of people are initially advised the option of using opioids to manage chronic pain. However, some users end up using the drugs.

CBD has been shown to have similar effects on pain or even greater. The study also found CBD is more effective than opioids for managing pain for cancer patients. (37)


CBD for Marijuana Addiction

CBD has also been shown to lessen withdrawal symptoms associated when you are suffering from marijuana addiction. (38)

While both are derived from hemp The unique nature that exists between CBD and THC permits the two to have distinct effects on the body and also on each other. CBD can be believed to block THC’s effects. THC and reduce as well as THC’s “high” and the anxiety associated with it. (39)

THC increases the sensitivity of other drugs while CBD reduces the reward response.

Based on the research mentioned above, using products that have CBD can help reduce cravings in those who wish to overcome addiction.


Can People Get Addicted to CBD?

CBD is well-accepted by humans and does not create addiction in animals and humans. (40 ) A study by the World Health Organization (WHO) confirms that CBD usage does not cause dependence or tolerance. (41)

While side effects may occur, CBD, in general is considered to be safe for utilize. The most common adverse reactions occur when you take other medicines in conjunction with CBD because cannabidiol may alter the liver’s metabolism when taking certain medications.

The FDA recommends not to use CBD on breastfeeding and pregnant mothers, as well as children, as research on CBD’s safety in the populations mentioned above is not sufficient.

Anyone who experiences these side effects should discontinue using CBD and speak with an experienced physician:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Dry mouth
  • Sedation
  • Low blood pressure
  • Changes in body weight or appetite

How to Take CBD

There are a variety of CBD products that are available. CBD that allow consumers to choose the best method of consumption for the product.

  • Inhalation Inhalation through the mouth of CBD oil permits the compound to go into the bloodstream and begin to take effect immediately. There are a variety of CBD vape oils available to pick from and come in a range of flavors.
  • Application for topical use Topical products which include CBD oil are readily available in the form of creams, balms as well as salves and lotions. One can apply the cream directly onto their skin and let the CBD react with the receptors for cannabinoids located under the epidermis.
  • Sublingual app Users are able to apply CBD oil directly on their tongues using tiny droppers. This permits precise dosing and the results can be felt as quickly as 20 minutes, and last 5 times as long.
  • Ingestion of food Oral ingestion CBD products like chocolates, gummies, or baked goods are also available to enhance the flavor.

CBD Dosing Guide

As of the date of this article there are no guidelines for official guidance on CBD dosage have been published as of yet. This is the reason that most of the dosing information available is a bit sporadic in the sense that it is not a guideline.

The majority of people find it beneficial to adhere to the recommended dosage of between 1 and six mg CBD per 10 pounds bodyweight. But, previous studies have shown that participants in the study took greater CBD dosages, sometimes up to 800 mg.

In the absence of an official guideline for dosage It is recommended to talk with a physician before taking every CBD product. Medical professionals can recommend the suitable CBD dosage that is compatible with the body’s weight as well as the severity of a sign, the history of addiction and much more.

Conclusion

CBD which is derived from hemp plants is beginning to see more changes to the law to allow its application in modern medicine as well as for its therapeutic claims.

The adoption of the Farm Bill in 2018 and the declassification of Epidiolex as controlled substances help to propel CBD as well as its benefits for health into the spotlight.

The issue regarding CBD legality is always changing, as are the strict guidelines to follow when using its products currently. Anyone who is interested in CBD should keep abreast of the most recent developments in CBD to avoid legal consequences.

It is recommended to consult with a doctor before you decide to incorporate any type of CBD in a routine.

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  2. Hudak, J. op. cit.
  3. Texas Department of Agriculture. Retrieved from: https://www.texasagriculture.gov/RegulatoryPrograms/Hemp.aspx.
  4. Idaho Office of Drug Policy. Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from: https://odp.idaho.gov/cannibidiol/.
  5. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019, December 31). Report in Response to Further Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2020. Retrieved from: https://hempsupporter.com/assets/uploads/FDA-CBD-Report.pdf.
  6. GW Pharmaceuticals (2020, April 6). GW Pharmaceuticals plc and Its U.S. Subsidiary Greenwich Biosciences, Inc. Announce That EPIDIOLEX(r) (cannabidiol) Oral Solution Has Been Descheduled And Is No Longer A Controlled Substance. Retrieved from: https://ir.gwpharm.com/news-releases/news-release-details/gw-pharmaceuticals-plc-and-its-us-subsidiary-greenwich-1.
  7. Stuyt A. The Issue with current high potency THC Marijuana from the perspective of an Addiction Psychiatric Specialist. Mo Med. 2018;115(6):482-486.
  8. Hudak, J. op. cit.
  9. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (2020, May 5). Retrieved from: https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/orangebook/c_cs_alpha.pdf.
  10. Hudak, J. op. cit.
  11. Texas Department of Agriculture. op.cit
  12. Idaho Office of Drug Policy. op.cit
  13. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. op. cit.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Abu-Sawwa R, Stehling C. Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) Primer: Frequently Asked Questions for Patients and Caregivers. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2020;25(1):75-77. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-25.1.75
  17. Silvestro S, Mammana S, Cavalli E, Bramanti P, Mazzon E. Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules. 2019;24(8):1459. Published 2019 Apr 12. doi:10.3390/molecules24081459
  18. Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K; GWPCARE Study Group. Cannabidiol in patients suffering from seizures that are associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4) A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study. Lancet. 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1085-1096. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
  19. Pauli CS, Conroy M, Vanden Heuvel BD, Park SH. Cannabidiol Drugs Clinical Trial Outcomes and Adverse Effects. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:63. Published 2020 Feb 25. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.00063
  20. GW Pharmaceuticals. op. cit.
  21. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2019, November 25). FDA warns 15 companies of illegally selling various products that contain cannabidiol, as the agency outlines security concerns. Retrieved from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-warns-15-companies-illegally-selling-various-products-containing-cannabidiol-agency-details.
  22. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD. Retrieved from: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis.
  23. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708-1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909
  24. Zou S, Kumar U. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(3):833. Published 2018 Mar 13. doi:10.3390/ijms19030833
  25. Scotter, EL Abood ME, Glass M. The Endocannabinoid system as a potential target to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):480-498. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00735.x
  26. Valverde O, Torrens M. CB1 receptor deficient mice as a study model of depression. Neuroscience. 2012 Mar 1;204:193-206. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.09.031. Epub 2011 Sep 19.
  27. Godlewski G Godlewski G, Malinowska B Schlicker E. The cannabinoid presynaptic CB(1) receptors play a role in the suppression of the vasopressor neurogenic response in septic shock pithed rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2004;142(4):701-708. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705839
  28. Gomez O, Sanchez-Rodriguez A, Le M, Sanchez-Caro C, Molina-Holgado FF Molina-Holgado e. The agonists of the cannabinoid receptor regulate the differentiation of oligodendrocytes by activating PI3K/ and mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1520-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01414.x.
  29. Basu S, Dittel BN. Understanding the complexity in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) the regulation of immune function in both health and disease. Immunol Res. 2011;51(1):26-38. doi:10.1007/s12026-011-8210-5
  30. Gonzalez-Cuevas G, Martin-Fardon R, Kerr TM, et al. Cannabidiol’s unique treatment capability to prevent the relapse to use of drugs Preclinical proof of the principle. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018;43(10):2036-2045. doi:10.1038/s41386-018-0050-8
  31. Ibid.
  32. Morgan CJ, Das RK, Joye A, Curran HV, Kamboj SK. Cannabidiol lowers the consumption of cigarettes in tobacco smokers: preliminary results. Addict Behav. 2013 Sep;38(9):2433-6. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.03.011. Epub 2013 Apr 1.
  33. Hindocha C, Freeman TP, Grabski M, Stroud JB, Crudgington H, Davies AC, Das RK, Lawn W, Morgan CJA, Curran HV. Cannabidiol reduces the tendency to pay attention to cigarettes in a human experiment with a model of withdrawal from tobacco. Addiction. 2018 May 1. Doi: 10.1111/add.14243.
  34. Katsidoni V Anagnostou I, Panagis G. Cannabidiol blocks the reward-enhancing effect of morphineby affecting of 5-HT1A receptors within the dorsal nucleus of the raphe. Addict Biol. 2013 Mar;18(2):286-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00483.x. Epub 2012 Aug 2.
  35. Ren Y, Whittard J, Higuera-Matas A, Morris CV, Hurd YL. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of cannabis, blocks the heroin-seeking behavior induced by cues and normalizes mesolimbic neuronal disorders that are discrete. J Neurosci. 2009 Nov 25;29(47):14764-9. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4291-09.2009.
  36. Hurd YL, Yoon M, Manini AF, et al. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):807-815. doi:10.1007/s13311-015-0373-7
  37. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. Double-blind, multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled study in parallel groups of the safety, efficacy and tolerability of CBD:THC extract as well as THC extract for patients suffering from chronic pain related to cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Feb;39(2):167-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.06.008. Epub 2009 Nov 5.
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  40. Prud’homme M. et al. op. cit.
  41. World Health Organization (2017). Expert Peer Review for Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD_PeerReview2.pdf.

Author

Integrative medicine specialist | View posts

Nicole Davis is a integrative medicine specialist who focuses on sleep and fatigue. She has extensively explored the therapeutic properties of cannabis, and provides specialized treatment plans according to personal symptoms. Dr. Davis is passionate about helping people feel their best, and believes that everyone deserves access to quality healthcare.

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